Zavaleta, ES; Hobbs, RJ; Mooney, HA. 2001. Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION 16 (8): 454-45

This article discusses the unintended consequences of species eradication that have occurred when restoration projects lack sufficient contextual ecological understanding. As a remedy, the authors urge scientists to conduct amplified studies and plans related to inter-species dynamics in restoration projects; to conduct substantial monitoring of these dynamics after a project's completion; and to adopt an attitude that accepts the unavoidable unknowns (and consequential experimental nature) of restoration projects that involve species eradication and/or re-introduction. While this may seem like a given now, this article was written in 2001, and is notable for its range of specific historical examples.

The difficulty of establishing sufficient knowledge and understanding for a well-conceived restoration project seems daunting in terms of both time and money. But the effort to understand inter-species relationships, and the acknowledgement of the limits of one's knowledge, seem to be important ingredients for present-term conceptions of restoration.

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